This guide covers a step-by-step process on setting up version control, obtaining and building a copy of the source code for a port, building the documentation, running tests, and a description of the directory structure of the MicroPython code base.
采用 Git 控制源代码 ¶
MicroPython 托管在 GitHub 和使用 Git for source control. The workflow is such that code is pulled and pushed to and from the main repository. Install the respective version of Git for your operating system to follow through the rest of the steps.
A .git-blame-ignore-revs file is included which avoids the output of git blame getting cluttered by commits which are only for formatting code but have no functional changes. See git blame documentation on how to use this.
It is recommended that you maintain a fork of the MicroPython repository for your development purposes. The process of obtaining the source code includes the following:
现在将拥有分叉在 < https://github.com /<your-user-name>/micropython>.
Clone the forked repository using the following command:
$ git clone https://github.com/<your-user-name>/micropython
Then, 配置远程存储库 to be able to collaborate on the MicroPython project.
$ cd micropython $ git remote add upstream https://github.com/micropython/micropython
It is common to configure
on a forked repository to assist with sharing code changes. You can maintain your own mapping but it is recommended that
maps to your fork and
to the main MicroPython repository.
After the above configuration, your setup should be similar to this:
$ git remote -v origin https://github.com/<your-user-name>/micropython (fetch) origin https://github.com/<your-user-name>/micropython (push) upstream https://github.com/micropython/micropython (fetch) upstream https://github.com/micropython/micropython (push)
You should now have a copy of the source code. By default, you are pointing to the master branch. To prepare for further development, it is recommended to work on a development branch.
$ git checkout -b dev-branch
You can give it any name. You will have to compile MicroPython whenever you change to a different branch.
当编译 MicroPython 时，编译特定 port , usually targeting a specific board . Start by installing the required dependencies. Then build the MicroPython cross-compiler before you can successfully compile and build. This applies specifically when using Linux to compile. The Windows instructions are provided in a later section.
$ sudo apt-get install build-essential libffi-dev git pkg-config
For the stm32 port, the ARM cross-compiler is required:
$ sudo apt-get install arm-none-eabi-gcc arm-none-eabi-binutils arm-none-eabi-newlib
见 ARM GCC 工具链 了解最新细节。
Python is also required. Python 2 is supported for now, but we recommend using Python 3. Check that you have Python available on your system:
$ python3 Python 3.5.0 (default, Jul 17 2020, 14:04:10) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>
All supported ports have different dependency requirements, see their respective readme files .
构建 MicroPython 交叉编译器 ¶
Almost all ports require building
first to perform pre-compilation of Python code that will be included in the port firmware:
$ cd mpy-cross $ make
must be built for the host architecture and not the target architecture.
If it built successfully, you should see a message similar to this:
LINK mpy-cross text data bss dec hex filename 279328 776 880 280984 44998 mpy-cross
make -C mpy-cross
to build the cross-compiler in one statement without moving to the
directory otherwise, you will need to do
for the next steps.
构建 MicroPython 的 Unix port ¶
The Unix port is a version of MicroPython that runs on Linux, macOS, and other Unix-like operating systems. It’s extremely useful for developing MicroPython as it avoids having to deploy your code to a device to test it. In many ways, it works a lot like CPython’s python binary.
To build for the Unix port, make sure all Linux related dependencies are installed as detailed in the required dependencies section. See the
to make sure that all dependencies are installed for this port. Also, make sure you have a working environment for
. Ubuntu 20.04 has been used for the example below but other unixes ought to work with little modification:
$ gcc --version gcc (Ubuntu 9.3.0-10ubuntu2) 9.3.0 Copyright (C) 2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.then build:
$ cd ports/unix $ make submodules $ make
If MicroPython built correctly, you should see the following:
LINK micropython text data bss dec hex filename 412033 5680 2496 420209 66971 micropython
$ ./micropython MicroPython v1.13-38-gc67012d-dirty on 2020-09-13; linux version Use Ctrl-D to exit, Ctrl-E for paste mode >>> print("hello world") hello world >>>
构建 Windows port ¶
The Windows port includes a Visual Studio project file micropython.vcxproj that you can use to build micropython.exe. It can be opened in Visual Studio or built from the command line using msbuild. Alternatively, it can be built using mingw, either in Windows with Cygwin, or on Linux. See Windows port 文档编制 了解更多信息。
构建 STM32 port ¶
Like the Unix port, you need to install some required dependencies as detailed in the 所需依赖 section, then build:
$ cd ports/stm32 $ make submodules $ make
请参考 STM32 文档编制 for more details on flashing the firmware.
to make sure that all dependencies are installed for this port. The cross-compiler is needed.
should also be in the $PATH or specified manually via CROSS_COMPILE, either by setting the environment variable or in the
command line arguments.
You can also specify which board to use:
$ cd ports/stm32 $ make submodules $ make BOARD=<board>
见 ports/stm32/boards for the available boards. e.g. “PYBV11” or “NUCLEO_WB55”.
MicroPython documentation is created using
. If you have already installed Python, then install
. It is recommended that you use a virtual environment:
$ python3 -m venv env $ source env/bin/activate $ pip install sphinx
$ cd docs
$ make html
in your browser to view the docs locally. Refer to the documentation on
importing your documentation
to use Read the Docs.
To run all tests in the test suite on the Unix port use:
$ cd ports/unix $ make test
To run a selection of tests on a board/device connected over USB use:
$ cd tests $ ./run-tests.py --target minimal --device /dev/ttyACM0
另请参阅 写编写测试 .
There are a couple of directories to take note of in terms of where certain implementation details are. The following is a break down of the top-level folders in the source code.
Has the MicroPython cross-compiler which pre-compiles the Python scripts to bytecode.
用于支持 port 的所有 MicroPython 版本的代码。
Low-level C libraries used by any port which are mostly 3rd-party libraries.
Has drivers for specific hardware and intended to work across multiple ports.
包含更多非核心模块的 C 实现。
Has the standard documentation found at https://docs.micropython.org/ .
Contains helper tools including the
Example code for building MicroPython as a library as well as native modules.